Moulds are soil born contaminations, visible as mould spores. These spores infect the crop, in which the moulds will develop further. Moulds (or mould spores) are therefore already present in the crop at the moment of harvesting. Moulds produce mycotoxins which are very harmful, toxic molecules for animals. Another negative consequence of the formation of moulds in feed and grains is the production of water and heat.
Heat may be the best indicator for mould growth. It can be observed already just a few hours after storing the grains. Because grains are very poor conductors, there will be a local increase of temperature. Together with the released moisture, this creates optimal conditions for moulds to grow (which means a vicious circle has started).
The presence of humidity and mycelium results in a difficult passage of corns or feed in the silo. There is an adhesion of moulds on the silo walls, which doesn’t allow a complete clearing out of the silo. This will be a new source of contamination for the following delivery.
Moulds need energy to grow, which drastically decreases the amount of vitamins, amino acids and gross energy in the grain, therefore significantly reducing the grain’s quality and value. It can require an addition of up to 4% extra fat to rations containing mouldy corn in order to achieve the same growth and feed efficiency supplied by good quality corn.
Moulds can grow under certain conditions, such as the minimum water activity (Aw value) which is directly connected to the moisture content in grains and its storage temperature. The minimum Aw value for moulds to grow is only 0.60 to 0.65 (Xeromyces and Aspergillus). This value corresponds with a moisture level in grain of 11% (Aw = 0.25 – 0.65). This means that mould development can be reduced if the total humidity is below 11%. Drying of cereals to this level is possible, but it is expensive and also costs extra energy for rehydration of the feed in the GIT of the animal. Moreover it is not because the total humidity is below 11%, that every risk of mould development has disappeared. With high temperatures in the silo during the day, there is an excessive migration of water (evaporation). This water will again condensate during the night at lower temperatures and the huge local increase of moisture levels will cause mould development in these zones of the silo. In that case, the vicious cycle of mould growth has started.
To inhibit the existing moulds in the corn and other grains, and to stop further mould growth in the silo due to a moisture level above 11%, or during changing weather patterns (both rapidly changing temperatures, or cold nights / warm days), an effective Antimould solution is needed.
FF Antimould 64 PB+ is a synergistic mixture of preservatives and surfactants for the control of moulds in grains and feed. FF Antimould 64 PB+ reduces moulds and inhibits further mould growth.
The product has been ammoniated in order to make it non-corrosive to (low) carbon steel. FF Antimould 64 PB+ is 225 times less corrosive than pure Propionic Acid and on average 81 times less corrosive than competitor products.
The preservatives in FF Antimould 64 PB+ are Propionic Acid, Ammonium Di-Propionate and Benzoic Acid. FF Chemicals has developed a technique to produce a mixture of these components in liquid form, including Benzoic Acid.
Propionic Acid and Ammonium Di-Propionate are very well known for their capability of killing moulds and yeasts. In general, salts are less active than acids, but one important exception is Ammonium Di-Propionate. After penetrating the bacterial- or mould cell, it will split into both Ammonium and Propionate. Both components are toxic for moulds. Due to this property, the activity is close to that of pure Propionic Acid, but it is-non corrosive and much less volatile. Its ability to dissociate into mould cells is high and the diffusion grade in feed and grains is excellent.
One other unique point of FF Antimould 64 PB+ is the fact that it contains a high level of Benzoic Acid. The ‘Minimum Inhibitory Concentration’ (MIC) of Benzoic Acid in moulds and yeasts at pH 5 is six times lower than Propionic Acid (the ‘golden standard’): 0.0173 – 0.130 (% w/w) against 0.10 – 0.50 (w/w%). This means that every 1% of Benzoic Acid in liquid form, is 6 times more effective than 1% of pure Propionic Acid.
The surfactant provides a special affinity for water to regulate the water activity (Aw) in feed and grains. Thus it eliminates sweating and inhibits moisture migration in the silo during changing weather patterns or hot days / cold nights and stops the vicious cycle of mould growth. Furthermore it reduces the surface tension of the product and improves the penetration of Antimould 64 PB+ into the feed and raw material particles. This moreover ensures a lower dosage level.
Because of its water binding properties, FF Antimould 64 PB+ enables ‘Moisture Optimization Programs’ (MOP), in which extra addition of steam or water during the pelletizing process is possible, without the risk for mould development due to unprotected water. The combination of FF Antimould 64 PB+, together with an addition of 1.5% water to press meal is an effective method to optimize feed moisture levels, improve production efficiency and to ensure the feed pellet quality. The mould inhibiting properties of this technology eliminate the negative effect on shelf-life which would be the usual result if only water would be added to the feed, without any further treatment. The relatively low inclusion rate of FF Antimould 64 PB+ gives a significant economic benefit to the feed mill, while maintaining or even improving the shelf-life of the feed.
Trials have shown the effectiveness of FF Antimould 64 PB+: When applied in corn with 18% moisture at 37°C for one month, the treatment group with 2.5 kg/ton FF Antimould 64 PB+ still had an acceptable quality of 40.000 CFU/g mould count, but the control group was already moulded after 5 days.
In February 2015, a moulded corn sample (1.500.000 CFU/g) from Laos was divided in 2 parts. One part was treated with 2.0 kg/t FF Antimould 64 PB+ and the other half was stored untreated. After 5 days, the treated part was analysed at WFC Analytics in The Netherlands, showing a mould count of < 40 CFU/g which proved that the moulds were inhibited and further mould growth had stopped. Analysis after 96 days showed a ‘rejected feed status’ for the control group and only 5.300 CFU/g mould count for the treatment group, representing a good quality corn (< 10.000 CFU/g).
FF Antimould 64 PB+ (liquid) advantages are:
- It’s classification as Non-Corrosive by analyses.
- The high amount of Liquefied Benzoic Acid and Ammoniated Propionic acid, which makes the product even more effective than Pure Propionic Acid against moulds, fungi and yeasts.
- The surfactant in the product ensures an extremely low dosage rate, and controls the free water activity (Aw).
- It can be applied in Moisture Optimization Programs where extra water is added to the feed, without decreasing its shelf life.
- Very low dosage, from 400 gram/ton at 11-13% moisture for storage up to 3 months
FF Antimould 64 PB+: for healthy and profitable feed!